Women have been active in American business since the eighteenth century, and while they have made enormous contributions, they have also had to overcome tremendous obstacles. This encyclopedia chronicles the accomplishments of women in American business since the colonial era and discusses the historical events and issues that have concerned them. The encyclopedia additionally summarizes important legislation and organizations and covers such industries as accounting, advertising, banking, and manufacturing. Quotations from the women profiled capture their experiences in their own words. Included are more than 300 alphabetically arranged entries on such American businesswomen as Lucille Ball, Clara Brown, Hattie Carnegie, Liz Claiborne, Abby Joseph Cohen, Jenny Craig, Carleton S. Fiorina, Jamie Gorelick, Rosa Maria Hinojosa de Balli, Abigail Pierrepont Johnson, Estee Lauder, Christine Liang, Martha Stewart, and many more. Entries discuss the lives and careers of these women and cite works for further reading. The encyclopedia also includes roughly 100 interspersed entries on topics central to American businesswomen, including career planning, childcare, diversity, education, the finance industry, flexible work arrangements, golf, and real estate. Appendices list the most influential businesswomen in America, the top women-owned American companies, and women business leaders from particular ethnic and cultural groups, historical periods, and industries. A chronology details important events in the history of women in business, and an extensive bibliography concludes the encyclopedia.